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Table 1 Specific Risk factors

From: Pulmonary infections in the returned traveller

Risk activities Common Occasional
Bites
 Tick   Q fever
 Mosquitos Tropical eosinophilia (Wuchereia bancrofti and Brugia malayi) Dirofilarisis
 Animal Avian influenza, Nipah virus, Hantaan virus, MERS Q fever, tularemia, plague, SARS
 Dust exposure (e.g., caves or deserts) Coccidioimycosis, histoplasmosis  
 Cruise ships/resorts Legionella  
 Rural/Farm Q fever  
 Soil Strongyloidiasis, hookworm, ascariasis Melioidosis
 Fresh-water exposure Schistosomiasis, leptospirosis  
Ingestion
 Undercooked/raw food   Paragonimus, toxocariasis, hydatidosis
 Sexual exposure HIV  
Host factors
 Immunocompromised Tuberculosis  
  1. SARS severe acute respiratory syndrome, MERS Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome, HIV human immunodeficiency virus