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Table 7 Outcome depending on relevant detected pathogen for all patients

From: Impact of viral multiplex real-time PCR on management of respiratory tract infection: a retrospective cohort study

  Viral Bacterial Mixed No pathogen p-value a
(n = 80) (n = 42) (n = 11) (n = 121) Viral vs. bacterial Viral vs. mixed Viral vs. no pathogen
LOS inpatients, median days (IQR) 12 (6–25.5) 22 (13–42.5) 27 (8–72) 16 (8–29.25) 0.004 0.20 0.20
 Complications, n (%)
  ICU admission 29 (36.3) 17 (40.5) 8 (72.7) 36 (29.8) 0.65 0.05 0.34
  Mechanical ventilation 14 (17.5) 15 (35.7) 7 (63.6) 30 (24.8) 0.03 0.01 0.22
  ARDS 4 (5.0) 5 (11.9) 3 (27.3) 6 (5.0) 0.31 0.07 1.00
  Sepsis 41 (51.3) 28 (66.7) 7 (63.6) 6 (5.0)b 0.10 0.44 n/a
  Mortality (all cause) 6 (7.5) 4 (9.5) 1 (9.1) 6 (5.0) 0.94 1.00 0.65
 Antibiotic use (any indication)
  Any inpatient antibiotics, n (%) 58/73 (79.5) 35/38 (92.1) 9/11 (81.8) 90/109 (82.6) 0.09 1.00 0.60
  Duration of inpatient use, mean days ± SD (range) 10.5 ± 13.9 (0-73) 17.5 ± 15.3 (0–72) 11.9 ± 10.0 (0–31) 10.0 ± 10.6 (0–63) 0.02 0.75 0.80
  Discharged receiving oral antibiotics, n (%) 17 (23.0)c 17 (44.7)d 2 (20.0)e 26 (22.8)f 0.02 1.00 0.98
  1. ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, ICU intensive care unit, IQR interquartile range, LOS length of stay, n number, SD standard deviation
  2. aFor continuous variables, 2-sample independent t-test or Mann-Whitney-U-test were used. For categorical variables, Mantel-Haenszel chi square or Fisher exact test were used
  3. bSepsis requires a pathogen per definition. In these six cases sepsis was exceptionally defined according to discharge papers
  4. Missing values due to death or ongoing hospitalisation at time of analysis (number): c6; d4; e1; f7. For calculation of percentage and p-value missing values were excluded