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Table 2 Comparison of demographic and clinical characteristics among patients with CAP during the CAP1 and the CAP2 periods unmatched and matched (case control). Figures are means (±SD) and n (%). The p value and risk ratio (RR)

From: Decreased relative risk of pneumococcal pneumonia during the last decade, a nested case-control study

  PANEL A (UNMATCHED)   PANEL B (MATCHED)   
Variable CAP1 (n = 307) CAP2 (n = 191) p value CAP1 (n = 145) CAP2 (n = 145) p value RR
Age, year (±SD) 64.6 ± 21.2 70.3 ± 19.1 0.002 67.8 ± 20.4 67.7 ± 20.4 0.484  
Male Sex 160 (58.6%) 93 (48.7%) 0.749 74 (51.0) 74 (51.0) 1.000 1.000
PSI class 5 106 (34.5%) 43 (22.5%) < 0.001 37 (25.5%) 33 (22.8%) 0.575 1.077
Admitted from nursing home 43 (14.0%) 27 (14.1%) 0.972 12 (8.3%) 23 (15.9%) 0.082 0.657
Managed as outpatients 75 (24.4%) 73 (38.2%) 0.003 51 (35.12% 54 (37.2%) 0.706 0.956
Admitted to the hospital 232 (75.5%) 118 (61.7%) < 0.001 94 (64.8%) 91 (62.8%) 0.716 0.968
Admitted (general ward) 176 (57.3%) 100 (52.3%) 0.402 83 (57.2% 77 (53.1%) 0.481 1.088
Admitted (ICU) 56 (18.2%) 18 (9.4%) 0.007 11 (7.6%) 14 (9.7%) 0.552 0.870
Positive blood culture 12 (3.9%) 7 (3.7%) 0.954 7 (4.8%) 6 (4.1%) 0.784 0.911
Requiring mechanical ventilation 16 (5.2%) 6 (3.1%) 0.012 4 (2.8%) 5 (3.4%) 0.748 0.886
Pneumococcal immunization 13 (4.2%) 36 (18.8%) < 0.001 6 (4.1%) 33 (22.7%) < 0.001 0.255
Pneumococcal. vaccine Indication 247 (80.4%) 142 (74.3%) 0.108 109 (75.2%) 103 (71.0%) 0.438 1.114
Positive SPUAT 81 (26.4%) 18 (9.5%) < 0.001 34 (23.4%) 12 (8.3%) < 0.001 2819
Current smoker 28 (9.1%) 33 (17.3%) 0.007 15 (10.3%) 20 (13.8%) 0.396 0.841
Chronic lung disease 91 (29.6%) 41 (21.5%) 0.041 37 (25.3%) 28 (19.3%) 0.184 1.186
Cardiac disease 68 (22.2%) 38 (19.9%) 0.558 21 (14.5%) 29 (20.1%) 0.243 0.813
Diabetes 29 (9.5%) 22 (11.5%) 0.464 10 (6.9% 13 (8.9%) 0.706 0.538
Hepatic disease 6 (1.9%) 6 (3.1%) 0.412 2 (1.4%) 3 (2.1%) 0.681 0.797
Renal failure 30 (10.8%) 19 (9.9%) 0.951 10 (6.9%) 5 (3.4%) 0.112 1.358
Descesed 64 (20.8%) 30 (15.5%) 0.143 23 (15.9%) 22 (15.2%) 0.870 1.026