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  1. The majority of patients with community acquired-pneumonia (CAP) are treated in primary care and the mortality in this group is very low. However, a small but significant proportion of patients who begin treat...

    Authors: Biswajit Chakrabarti, Dan Wootton, Steven Lane, Elizabeth Kanwar, Joseph Somers, Jacyln Proctor, Nancy Prospero and Mark Woodhead
    Citation: Pneumonia 2018 10:2
  2. Children in third-world settings including Papua New Guinea (PNG) experience early onset of carriage with a broad range of pneumococcal serotypes, resulting in a high incidence of severe pneumococcal disease a...

    Authors: Deborah Lehmann, Wendy Kirarock, Anita H. J. van den Biggelaar, Megan Passey, Peter Jacoby, Gerard Saleu, Geraldine Masiria, Birunu Nivio, Andrew Greenhill, Tilda Orami, Jacinta Francis, Rebecca Ford, Lea-Ann Kirkham, Vela Solomon, Peter C. Richmond and William S. Pomat
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:20
  3. Ever since Chuck Berry coined the term “rocking pneumonia” in his 1956 song “Roll over Beethoven”, pneumonia has been mentioned frequently in modern blues and rock songs. We analyzed the lyrics of these songs ...

    Authors: Ger T. Rijkers and Maria Rodriguez Gomez
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:18
  4. Patients with recurrent respiratory tract infections and an impaired response to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination are diagnosed with a specific antibody deficiency. In adult patients with pneumococcal p...

    Authors: Diana van Kessel, Thijs Hoffman, Heleen van Velzen-Blad, Bob Meek, Suzan van Mens, Jan Grutters and Ger Rijkers
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:16
  5. Pneumococcal disease has a high burden in adults in the United Kingdom (UK); however, the total burden is underestimated, principally because most cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are non-invasive. ...

    Authors: James Chalmers, James Campling, Gillian Ellsbury, Peter M. Hawkey, Harish Madhava and Mary Slack
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:15
  6. The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced to prevent invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal people in 2001. PCV13 replaced PCV7 in July 2011, covering...

    Authors: Deirdre A. Collins, Anke Hoskins, Thomas Snelling, Kalpani Senasinghe, Jacinta Bowman, Natalie A. Stemberger, Amanda J. Leach and Deborah Lehmann
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:14
  7. This study was designed to test the therapeutic potential of a MEK1/2 inhibitor (MEKi) in an experimental model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. The study found that treatment with MEKi reduced alveolar neutr...

    Authors: Matthew E. Long, Ke-Qin Gong, William E. Eddy, W. Conrad Liles and Anne M. Manicone
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:13
  8. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are more susceptible to respiratory tract infections by other infectious agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi) as their disease progresses to ...

    Authors: Breanne M. Head, Adriana Trajtman, Zulma V. Rueda, Lázaro Vélez and Yoav Keynan
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:12
  9. In children, necrotizing pneumonia (NP) is an uncommon, severe complication of pneumonia. It is characterized by destruction of the underlying lung parenchyma resulting in multiple small, thin-walled cavities ...

    Authors: I. Brent Masters, Alan F. Isles and Keith Grimwood
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:11
  10. Precise serotyping of pneumococci is essential for vaccine development, to better understand the pathogenicity and trends of drug resistance. Currently used conventional and molecular methods of serotyping are...

    Authors: Geetha Nagaraj, Feroze Ganaie, Vandana Govindan and Kadahalli Lingegowda Ravikumar
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:8
  11. Globally, pneumonia is considered to be the biggest killer of infants and young children (aged <5 years) outside the neonatal period, with the greatest disease burden in low- and middle-income countries. Optim...

    Authors: Nguyen T. K. Phuong, Tran T. Hoang, Pham H. Van, Lolyta Tu, Stephen M. Graham and Ben J. Marais
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:7
  12. Since 2000, the widespread adoption of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) has had a major impact in the prevention of pneumonia. Limited access to international financial support means some middle-income c...

    Authors: Serena Tricarico, Hannah C. McNeil, David W. Cleary, Michael G. Head, Victor Lim, Ivan Kok Seng Yap, Chong Chun Wie, Cheng Siang Tan, Mohd Nor Norazmi, Ismail Aziah, Eddy Seong Guan Cheah, Saul N. Faust, Johanna M.C. Jefferies, Paul J. Roderick, Michael Moore, Ho Ming Yuen…
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:6
  13. Pneumonia and meningitis are common causes of severe childhood illness in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The etiology of both clinical conditions in PNG has not been recently assessed. Changes in lifestyle, provision...

    Authors: Christopher C. Blyth, Rebecca Ford, Joycelyn Sapura, Tonny Kumani, Geraldine Masiria, John Kave, Lapule Yuasi, Andrew Greenhill, Ilomo Hwaihwanje, Amanda Lang, Deborah Lehmann and William Pomat
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:5
  14. Air pollution has been shown to increase the susceptibility to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Previously, we observed an increased incidence of CAP in adults living within 1 km from poultry farms, potenti...

    Authors: Lidwien A. M. Smit, Gert Jan Boender, Wouter A. A. de Steenhuijsen Piters, Thomas J. Hagenaars, Elisabeth G. W. Huijskens, John W. A. Rossen, Marion Koopmans, Gonnie Nodelijk, Elisabeth A. M. Sanders, Joris Yzermans, Debby Bogaert and Dick Heederik
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:3
  15. British Thoracic Society guidelines recommend clarithromycin in addition to beta-lactam antibiotics for patients with community-acquired pneumonia and CURB-65 score 2–5. Intravenous therapy is commonly used bu...

    Authors: Nikolas Rae, Aran Singanayagam, Stuart Schembri and James D. Chalmers
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:2
  16. Pulmonary infections in the returned traveller are a common presentation. A wide variety of infections may present with pulmonary symptoms. It is important for clinicians to differentiate the cause of these sy...

    Authors: Ashleigh Trimble, V. Moffat and A. M. Collins
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:1
  17. In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared tuberculosis (TB) to be responsible for more deaths than any other single infectious disease. The burden of TB among children has frequently been dismissed...

    Authors: Helen E. Jenkins
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:24
  18. Despite significant progress, pneumonia is still the leading cause of infectious deaths in children under five years of age. Poor adherence to antibiotics has been associated with treatment failure in World He...

    Authors: Rebecca Nightingale, Tim Colbourn, David Mukanga, Limangeni Mankhambo, Norman Lufesi, Eric D. McCollum and Carina King
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:21
  19. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) has the potential to interact with other vaccines containing diphtheria toxin-like antigens (such as those found in the DTP vaccine) upon sequential administration. This is...

    Authors: Mohamed Tashani, Harunor Rashid, Kim Mulholland and Robert Booy
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:16
  20. Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae is considered a precursor to pneumococcal diseases including pneumonia. As part of the Kalgoorlie Otitis Media Research Project, we characterised pneumococci isolated from the...

    Authors: Eileen M. Dunne, Kylie Carville, Thomas V. Riley, Jacinta Bowman, Amanda J. Leach, Allan W. Cripps, Denise Murphy, Peter Jacoby and Deborah Lehmann
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:15
  21. Following the publication of a volume of Pneumonia focused on diagnosis, the journal’s Editorial Board members debated the definition and classification of pneumonia and came to a consensus on the need to revise ...

    Authors: Grant Mackenzie
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:14
  22. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi)-associated ear and respiratory diseases (including pneumonia) represent a major health burden in many parts of the world. NTHi strains retrieved from the upper airways c...

    Authors: Heidi C. Smith-Vaughan, Jemima Beissbarth, Jacinta Bowman, Kim M. Hare, Erin P. Price, Janessa Pickering, Deborah Lehmann, Anne B. Chang, Peter S. Morris, Robyn L. Marsh and Amanda J. Leach
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:13
  23. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA), a conserved virulence factor essential for Streptococcus pneumoniae attachment to upper respiratory tract (URT) epithelia, is a potential vaccine candidate for preventing co...

    Authors: Jacinta P. Francis, Peter C. Richmond, Audrey Michael, Peter M. Siba, Peter Jacoby, Belinda J. Hales, Wayne R. Thomas, Deborah Lehmann, William S. Pomat and Anita H. J. van den Biggelaar
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:12
  24. Macrolide antibiotics are widely used for a range of indications, including pneumonia. Both high-level and low-level resistance to macrolides is increasing in pneumococci globally. Macrolide resistance in pneu...

    Authors: Allen C. Cheng and Adam W. J. Jenney
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:10
  25. The role and relationship between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines represents one of the least studied aspects of the pathogenesis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The aim of the present study was to...

    Authors: Stefano Aliberti, Letizia Corinna Morlacchi, Paola Faverio, Rafael Fernandez-Botran, Roberto Cosentini, Marco Mantero, Paula Peyrani, Julio Ramirez, Jose Bordon and Francesco Blasi
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:8
  26. Improved access to healthcare, vaccines and treatment with antibiotics has reduced global mortality from childhood community-acquired pneumonia. However, as respiratory viruses are responsible for most episode...

    Authors: Keith Grimwood, Siew M. Fong, Mong H. Ooi, Anna M. Nathan and Anne B. Chang
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:6
  27. The aim of this study was to review the current status and usage of guidelines in the diagnosis and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in European countries and to compare to established guideline...

    Authors: Vytautas Usonis, Rimvydas Ivaskevicius, Javier Diez-Domingo, Susanna Esposito, Oana G. Falup-Pecurariu, Adam Finn, Fernanda Rodrigues, Vana Spoulou, George A. Syrogiannopoulos and David Greenberg
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:5
  28. Neonatal pneumonia is a devastating condition. Most deaths in sub-Saharan Africa can be attributed to preventable diseases, including pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria, which together killed an estimated 2.2 mi...

    Authors: Robin J. Green and Jessica M. Kolberg
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:3
  29. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of presentation to healthcare facilities. The diagnosis of CAP is usually made in patients with suggestive symptoms, signs, and radiological features. A num...

    Authors: Andrew D. Black
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:2
  30. The biggest recent development in pneumonia diagnostics has been the increased availability and use of nucleic acid detection assays, although this change has brought with it new challenges about the interpret...

    Authors: David R. Murdoch
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:1
  31. Indigenous Australian children have high (up to 90%) rates of nasopharyngeal microbial colonisation and of hospitalisation for pneumonia. In Indigenous children hospitalised with pneumonia in Central Australia...

    Authors: Anne B. Chang, Heidi Smith-Vaughan, Theo P. Sloots, Patricia C. Valery, David Whiley, Jemima Beissbarth and Paul J. Torzillo
    Citation: Pneumonia 2015 6:6010048
  32. Thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) and haptoglobin (Hp) are known to be involved in pathophysiology. This study was conducted to evaluate their diagnostic significance. We employed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIS...

    Authors: Mee-Kyung Cha and Il-Han Kim
    Citation: Pneumonia 2015 6:6010018

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