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  1. Cohort studies identifying the incidence, complications and co-morbidities associated with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) are largely based on administrative datasets and rely on International Classificati...

    Authors: Maria C. Rodriguez-Barradas, Kathleen A. McGinnis, Kathleen Akgün, Janet P. Tate, Sheldon T. Brown, Adeel A. Butt, Michael Fine, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Christopher J. Graber, Laurence Huang, David Rimland, Amy Justice and Kristina Crothers
    Citation: Pneumonia 2020 12:6
  2. Influenza viruses specifically, A and B mainly contribute to seasonal outbreaks that occur globally. However, due to limited diagnostics for influenza there is little data regarding clinical outcomes of patien...

    Authors: Mujahid Hussain, Nosheen Nasir, Muhammad Irfan and Zahra Hasan
    Citation: Pneumonia 2020 12:5
  3. Childhood pneumonia continues to be a major infectious killer in India. WHO recommended respiratory rate and oxygen saturation (SpO2) measurements are not well implemented in Indian public health outpatient facil...

    Authors: Varun Alwadhi, Enisha Sarin, Praveen Kumar, Prasant Saboth, Ajay Khera, Sachin Gupta and Harish Kumar
    Citation: Pneumonia 2020 12:4
  4. Pneumonia is a serious health concern, but it does not attract the attention it warrants. Perhaps this is due to a lack of understanding of the real extent of this infectious disease in the general population.

    Authors: Catia Cillóniz, Leith Greenslade, Cristina Dominedò and Carolina Garcia-Vidal
    Citation: Pneumonia 2020 12:3

    The Correction to this article has been published in Pneumonia 2023 15:9

  5. The International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases (ISPPD) is the premier global scientific symposium dedicated to the exchange, advancement and dissemination of the latest research on the pn...

    Authors: Brenda Anna Kwambana-Adams, E. Kim Mulholland and Catherine Satzke
    Citation: Pneumonia 2020 12:2
  6. UK specific data on the risk of developing hospitalised CAP for patients with underlying comorbidities is lacking. This study compared the likelihood of hospitalised all-cause community acquired pneumonia (CAP...

    Authors: J. Campling, D. Jones, J. D. Chalmers, Q. Jiang, A. Vyse, H. Madhava, G. Ellsbury and M. Slack
    Citation: Pneumonia 2019 11:4
  7. Although Neisseria meningitidis is one of the major causes of meningitis, meningococcal pneumonia is the most common non-neurological organ disease caused by this pathogen.

    Authors: Charles Feldman and Ronald Anderson
    Citation: Pneumonia 2019 11:3
  8. Although β-lactam monotherapy may be sufficient in non-critically ill patients with community-acquired pneumonia, the value of combination antibiotic regimens in community-onset neutropenic pneumonia remains u...

    Authors: Hyeri Seok, Jae-Hoon Ko, Kyong Ran Peck, Ji-Yeon Kim, Ji Hye Lee, Ga Eun Park, Sun Young Cho, Cheol-In Kang, Nam Yong Lee and Doo Ryeon Chung
    Citation: Pneumonia 2019 11:2
  9. Utilization of diagnostics and biomarkers are the second largest cost drivers in the management of patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The present study aimed to systematically asses...

    Authors: Stefan M. T. Vestjens, Esther Wittermans, Simone M. C. Spoorenberg, Jan C. Grutters, Charlotte A. van Ruitenbeek, G. Paul Voorn, Willem Jan W. Bos and Ewoudt M. W. van de Garde
    Citation: Pneumonia 2018 10:15
  10. Potentially pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus are commonly carried in the nasopharynx of young children. Host and environmental...

    Authors: Eddy Fadlyana, Eileen M. Dunne, Kusnandi Rusmil, Rodman Tarigan, Sunaryati Sudigdoadi, Chrysanti Murad, Emma Watts, Cattram Nguyen, Catherine Satzke, Nurhandini Eka Dewi, Sang Ayu Kompiyang Indriyani, Finny Fitry Yani, Kim Mulholland and Cissy Kartasasmita
    Citation: Pneumonia 2018 10:14
  11. Indigenous children in Australia’s Northern Territory are densely colonised with the pneumococcus within weeks of birth antecedent to a high prevalence of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI). We assessed ...

    Authors: Michael J. Binks, Sarah A. Moberley, Anne Balloch, Amanda J. Leach, Sandra Nelson, Kim M. Hare, Cate Wilson, Jane Nelson, Peter S. Morris, Robert S. Ware, Mimi L. K. Tang, Paul J. Torzillo, Jonathan R. Carapetis, Kim Mulholland and Ross M. Andrews
    Citation: Pneumonia 2018 10:13
  12. We report a case of endogenous lipoid pneumonia secondary to long-term use of amiodarone (> 30 years) for atrial fibrillation in a 76-year-old Caucasian woman, presenting with cough and dyspnea. Endogenous Lipoid...

    Authors: Ilektra Voulgareli, Alexandra Chronaiou, Dionisios Tsoukalas and George Tsoukalas
    Citation: Pneumonia 2018 10:12
  13. Streptococcus pneumoniae is capable of causing multiple infectious syndromes and occasionally causes outbreaks. The objective of this review is to update prior outbreak reviews, identify control measures, and com...

    Authors: Paul N. Zivich, John D. Grabenstein, Sylvia I. Becker-Dreps and David J. Weber
    Citation: Pneumonia 2018 10:11
  14. Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) is one of the most common pathogens of Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP), but recent reports suggest that its incidence may be declining in relation to the use of the conjugate 13-v...

    Authors: Carlos M. Luna, Laura Pulido, Michael S. Niederman, Alberto Casey, Diego Burgos, Sebastián D. Leiva Agüero, Alejandra Grosso, Evangelina Membriani, Andrea C. Entrocassi, Marcelo Rodríquez Fermepin, Carlos A. Vay, Susana Garcia and Angela Famiglietti
    Citation: Pneumonia 2018 10:9
  15. Culture-independent sequencing methods are increasingly used to investigate the microbiota associated with human mucosal surfaces, including sites that have low bacterial load in healthy individuals (e.g. the ...

    Authors: Robyn L. Marsh, Maria T. Nelson, Chris E. Pope, Amanda J. Leach, Lucas R. Hoffman, Anne B. Chang and Heidi C. Smith-Vaughan
    Citation: Pneumonia 2018 10:7
  16. The advent of antiretroviral therapy has led to the improved survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children to adulthood and to HIV becoming a chronic disease in older children and adolescent...

    Authors: Leah N. Githinji, Diane M. Gray and Heather J. Zar
    Citation: Pneumonia 2018 10:6
  17. The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infection rises considerably in later life. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody levels to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide are known to...

    Authors: Esther L. German, Bahij Al-Hakim, Elena Mitsi, Shaun H. Pennington, Jenna F. Gritzfeld, Angie D. Hyder-Wright, Antonia Banyard, Stephen B. Gordon, Andrea M. Collins and Daniela M. Ferreira
    Citation: Pneumonia 2018 10:5
  18. Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that remains an important public health problem at the global level. It is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality, due to the emergence of antibiotic resis...

    Authors: Rkia Eddabra and Hassan Ait Benhassou
    Citation: Pneumonia 2018 10:4
  19. Pneumonia is a very common disease, especially among the elderly. Various drugs’ preventive effects against pneumonia have been reported. The antiplatelet drug cilostazol is used to prevent pneumonia, but the ...

    Authors: Hirotaka Nakashima, Kazuhisa Watanabe, Hiroyuki Umegaki, Yusuke Suzuki and Masafumi Kuzuya
    Citation: Pneumonia 2018 10:3
  20. The majority of patients with community acquired-pneumonia (CAP) are treated in primary care and the mortality in this group is very low. However, a small but significant proportion of patients who begin treat...

    Authors: Biswajit Chakrabarti, Dan Wootton, Steven Lane, Elizabeth Kanwar, Joseph Somers, Jacyln Proctor, Nancy Prospero and Mark Woodhead
    Citation: Pneumonia 2018 10:2
  21. Children in third-world settings including Papua New Guinea (PNG) experience early onset of carriage with a broad range of pneumococcal serotypes, resulting in a high incidence of severe pneumococcal disease a...

    Authors: Deborah Lehmann, Wendy Kirarock, Anita H. J. van den Biggelaar, Megan Passey, Peter Jacoby, Gerard Saleu, Geraldine Masiria, Birunu Nivio, Andrew Greenhill, Tilda Orami, Jacinta Francis, Rebecca Ford, Lea-Ann Kirkham, Vela Solomon, Peter C. Richmond and William S. Pomat
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:20
  22. Ever since Chuck Berry coined the term “rocking pneumonia” in his 1956 song “Roll over Beethoven”, pneumonia has been mentioned frequently in modern blues and rock songs. We analyzed the lyrics of these songs ...

    Authors: Ger T. Rijkers and Maria Rodriguez Gomez
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:18
  23. Patients with recurrent respiratory tract infections and an impaired response to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination are diagnosed with a specific antibody deficiency. In adult patients with pneumococcal p...

    Authors: Diana van Kessel, Thijs Hoffman, Heleen van Velzen-Blad, Bob Meek, Suzan van Mens, Jan Grutters and Ger Rijkers
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:16
  24. Pneumococcal disease has a high burden in adults in the United Kingdom (UK); however, the total burden is underestimated, principally because most cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are non-invasive. ...

    Authors: James Chalmers, James Campling, Gillian Ellsbury, Peter M. Hawkey, Harish Madhava and Mary Slack
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:15
  25. The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced to prevent invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal people in 2001. PCV13 replaced PCV7 in July 2011, covering...

    Authors: Deirdre A. Collins, Anke Hoskins, Thomas Snelling, Kalpani Senasinghe, Jacinta Bowman, Natalie A. Stemberger, Amanda J. Leach and Deborah Lehmann
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:14
  26. This study was designed to test the therapeutic potential of a MEK1/2 inhibitor (MEKi) in an experimental model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. The study found that treatment with MEKi reduced alveolar neutr...

    Authors: Matthew E. Long, Ke-Qin Gong, William E. Eddy, W. Conrad Liles and Anne M. Manicone
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:13
  27. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are more susceptible to respiratory tract infections by other infectious agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi) as their disease progresses to ...

    Authors: Breanne M. Head, Adriana Trajtman, Zulma V. Rueda, Lázaro Vélez and Yoav Keynan
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:12
  28. In children, necrotizing pneumonia (NP) is an uncommon, severe complication of pneumonia. It is characterized by destruction of the underlying lung parenchyma resulting in multiple small, thin-walled cavities ...

    Authors: I. Brent Masters, Alan F. Isles and Keith Grimwood
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:11
  29. Precise serotyping of pneumococci is essential for vaccine development, to better understand the pathogenicity and trends of drug resistance. Currently used conventional and molecular methods of serotyping are...

    Authors: Geetha Nagaraj, Feroze Ganaie, Vandana Govindan and Kadahalli Lingegowda Ravikumar
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:8
  30. Globally, pneumonia is considered to be the biggest killer of infants and young children (aged <5 years) outside the neonatal period, with the greatest disease burden in low- and middle-income countries. Optim...

    Authors: Nguyen T. K. Phuong, Tran T. Hoang, Pham H. Van, Lolyta Tu, Stephen M. Graham and Ben J. Marais
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:7
  31. Since 2000, the widespread adoption of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) has had a major impact in the prevention of pneumonia. Limited access to international financial support means some middle-income c...

    Authors: Serena Tricarico, Hannah C. McNeil, David W. Cleary, Michael G. Head, Victor Lim, Ivan Kok Seng Yap, Chong Chun Wie, Cheng Siang Tan, Mohd Nor Norazmi, Ismail Aziah, Eddy Seong Guan Cheah, Saul N. Faust, Johanna M.C. Jefferies, Paul J. Roderick, Michael Moore, Ho Ming Yuen…
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:6
  32. Pneumonia and meningitis are common causes of severe childhood illness in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The etiology of both clinical conditions in PNG has not been recently assessed. Changes in lifestyle, provision...

    Authors: Christopher C. Blyth, Rebecca Ford, Joycelyn Sapura, Tonny Kumani, Geraldine Masiria, John Kave, Lapule Yuasi, Andrew Greenhill, Ilomo Hwaihwanje, Amanda Lang, Deborah Lehmann and William Pomat
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:5
  33. Air pollution has been shown to increase the susceptibility to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Previously, we observed an increased incidence of CAP in adults living within 1 km from poultry farms, potenti...

    Authors: Lidwien A. M. Smit, Gert Jan Boender, Wouter A. A. de Steenhuijsen Piters, Thomas J. Hagenaars, Elisabeth G. W. Huijskens, John W. A. Rossen, Marion Koopmans, Gonnie Nodelijk, Elisabeth A. M. Sanders, Joris Yzermans, Debby Bogaert and Dick Heederik
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:3
  34. British Thoracic Society guidelines recommend clarithromycin in addition to beta-lactam antibiotics for patients with community-acquired pneumonia and CURB-65 score 2–5. Intravenous therapy is commonly used bu...

    Authors: Nikolas Rae, Aran Singanayagam, Stuart Schembri and James D. Chalmers
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:2
  35. Pulmonary infections in the returned traveller are a common presentation. A wide variety of infections may present with pulmonary symptoms. It is important for clinicians to differentiate the cause of these sy...

    Authors: Ashleigh Trimble, V. Moffat and A. M. Collins
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:1
  36. In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared tuberculosis (TB) to be responsible for more deaths than any other single infectious disease. The burden of TB among children has frequently been dismissed...

    Authors: Helen E. Jenkins
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:24
  37. Despite significant progress, pneumonia is still the leading cause of infectious deaths in children under five years of age. Poor adherence to antibiotics has been associated with treatment failure in World He...

    Authors: Rebecca Nightingale, Tim Colbourn, David Mukanga, Limangeni Mankhambo, Norman Lufesi, Eric D. McCollum and Carina King
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:21

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