Skip to main content

Table 3 Causes of pulmonary infections associated with specific geographical areas

From: Pulmonary infections in the returned traveller

Geographical Area Common Occasional Rare but important
Sub-Saharan Africa HIV-associated pulmonary infections, TB Katayama syndrome, tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (Wuchereia bancrofti), Loeffler’s syndrome (hookworm, strongyloides) hydatidosis Histoplasmosis, pneumonic plague, paragonomiasis
North Africa, Middle East and Mediterranean   Q fever, tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (Wuchereia bancrofti) Loeffler’s syndrome (hookworm, ascariasis, strongyloides) hydatidosis, toxocariasis MERS
Eastern Europe and Scandinavia Legionellosis Pertussis, toxocariasis Hantavirus, tularemia
South and Central Asia diphtheria, TB, avian flu Melioidosis, Loeffler’s syndrome (hookworm, ascariasis, strongyloides) hydatidosis Nipah virus
Southeast Asia avian flu Melioidosis, tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (Brugia malayi), Loeffler’s syndrome (strongyloides, hookworm), leptospirosis, diphtheria SARS, hantavirus, Nipah virus, dirofilariasis, Katayama syndrome, paragonomiasis
Northern Australia   Q fever Melioidosis, dirofilarisis, pertussis
Latin America and Caribbean   Coccidioidomycosis
histoplasmosis, leptospirosis, diphtheria, tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (Wuchereia bancrofti), Loeffler’s syndrome (ascariasis, strongyloides), hydatidosis, toxocariasis
Hantavirus, dirofilariasis
North America Legionellosis, pertussis, diphtheria Coccidioidomycosis
histoplasmosis, toxocariasis
Dirofilariasis, Q fever
  1. HIV human immunodeficiency virus, SARS severe acute respiratory syndrome, MERS Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome, TB tuberculosis