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  1. Due to high risk of mortality, children with comorbidities are typically excluded from trials evaluating pneumonia treatment. Understanding heterogeneity of outcomes among children with pneumonia and comorbidi...

    Authors: Amy Sarah Ginsburg, Tisungane Mvalo, Jun Hwang, Melda Phiri, Eric D. McCollum, Madalitso Maliwichi, Robert Schmicker, Ajib Phiri, Norman Lufesi and Susanne May

    Citation: Pneumonia 2021 13:3

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is commonly associated with oro-facial and genital manifestations. It rarely causes encephalitis and even less commonly, in heavily immunosuppressed patients, visceral disease or bro...

    Authors: Johannes Sumer, Frederike Waldeck, Nadja Fischer, Christina Appenzeller, Markus Koster, Martin Früh and Werner C. Albrich

    Citation: Pneumonia 2021 13:1

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  3. Due to similarities in initial disease presentation, clinicians may be inclined to repeatedly test community-acquired pneumonia cases for COVID-19 before recognizing the need to test for Legionnaires’ disease....

    Authors: Kelsie Cassell, J Lucian Davis and Ruth Berkelman

    Citation: Pneumonia 2021 13:2

    Content type: Commentary

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  4. While persons who receive immigrant and refugee visas are screened for active tuberculosis before admission into the United States, nonimmigrant visa applicants (NIVs) are not routinely screened and may enter ...

    Authors: Bisma Ali Sayed, Drew L. Posey, Brian Maskery, La’Marcus T. Wingate and Martin S. Cetron

    Citation: Pneumonia 2020 12:15

    Content type: Research

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  5. Pneumonia is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in under-five children. Regardless of this fact, efforts to identify determinants of pneumonia have been limited in the study area. The aim of this stu...

    Authors: Getaw Walle Bazie, Nebat Seid and Bitiya Admassu

    Citation: Pneumonia 2020 12:14

    Content type: Research

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  6. Maternal immunization with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) may protect young infants in high-risk settings against the high risk of pneumococcal infections in early life. The aim of this study was to dete...

    Authors: Sarah Javati, Geraldine Masiria, Arthur Elizah, John-Paul Matlam, Rebecca Ford, Peter C. Richmond, Deborah Lehmann, William S. Pomat and Anita H. J. van den Biggelaar

    Citation: Pneumonia 2020 12:13

    Content type: Research

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  7. Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading infectious cause of human mortality and is responsible for nearly 2 million deaths every year. It is often regarded as a ‘silent killer’ because it predominantly affects the po...

    Authors: Gabriella Scandurra, Chris Degeling, Paul Douglas, Claudia C. Dobler and Ben Marais

    Citation: Pneumonia 2020 12:9

    Content type: Review

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  8. Childhood pneumonia continues to be a disease that causes severe morbidity and mortality among children mainly in South-East Asia and Africa though it is not so in the developed world. Pneumonia accounts for 1...

    Authors: Sanath Thushara Kudagammana, Ruchira Ruwanthika Karunaratne, Thilini Surenika Munasinghe and Haputhanthirige Donna Wasana Samankumari Kudagammana

    Citation: Pneumonia 2020 12:8

    Content type: Research

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  9. Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults is still a common and serious illness in the sub-Saharan Africa. Identification of the pathogens is crucial in the management of CAP. This study was done to determi...

    Authors: Peter Kishimbo, Nyambura Moremi Sogone, Fredrick Kalokola and Stephen E. Mshana

    Citation: Pneumonia 2020 12:7

    Content type: Research

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  10. Cohort studies identifying the incidence, complications and co-morbidities associated with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) are largely based on administrative datasets and rely on International Classificati...

    Authors: Maria C. Rodriguez-Barradas, Kathleen A. McGinnis, Kathleen Akgün, Janet P. Tate, Sheldon T. Brown, Adeel A. Butt, Michael Fine, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Christopher J. Graber, Laurence Huang, David Rimland, Amy Justice and Kristina Crothers

    Citation: Pneumonia 2020 12:6

    Content type: Research

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  11. Influenza viruses specifically, A and B mainly contribute to seasonal outbreaks that occur globally. However, due to limited diagnostics for influenza there is little data regarding clinical outcomes of patien...

    Authors: Mujahid Hussain, Nosheen Nasir, Muhammad Irfan and Zahra Hasan

    Citation: Pneumonia 2020 12:5

    Content type: Research

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  12. Childhood pneumonia continues to be a major infectious killer in India. WHO recommended respiratory rate and oxygen saturation (SpO2) measurements are not well implemented in Indian public health outpatient facil...

    Authors: Varun Alwadhi, Enisha Sarin, Praveen Kumar, Prasant Saboth, Ajay Khera, Sachin Gupta and Harish Kumar

    Citation: Pneumonia 2020 12:4

    Content type: Research

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  13. Pneumonia is a serious health concern, but it does not attract the attention it warrants. Perhaps this is due to a lack of understanding of the real extent of this infectious disease in the general population.

    Authors: Catia Cillóniz, Leith Greenslade, Cristina Dominedò and Carolina Garcia-Vidal

    Citation: Pneumonia 2020 12:3

    Content type: Review

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  14. The International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases (ISPPD) is the premier global scientific symposium dedicated to the exchange, advancement and dissemination of the latest research on the pn...

    Authors: Brenda Anna Kwambana-Adams, E. Kim Mulholland and Catherine Satzke

    Citation: Pneumonia 2020 12:2

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  15. UK specific data on the risk of developing hospitalised CAP for patients with underlying comorbidities is lacking. This study compared the likelihood of hospitalised all-cause community acquired pneumonia (CAP...

    Authors: J. Campling, D. Jones, J. D. Chalmers, Q. Jiang, A. Vyse, H. Madhava, G. Ellsbury and M. Slack

    Citation: Pneumonia 2019 11:4

    Content type: Research

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  16. Although Neisseria meningitidis is one of the major causes of meningitis, meningococcal pneumonia is the most common non-neurological organ disease caused by this pathogen.

    Authors: Charles Feldman and Ronald Anderson

    Citation: Pneumonia 2019 11:3

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  17. Although β-lactam monotherapy may be sufficient in non-critically ill patients with community-acquired pneumonia, the value of combination antibiotic regimens in community-onset neutropenic pneumonia remains u...

    Authors: Hyeri Seok, Jae-Hoon Ko, Kyong Ran Peck, Ji-Yeon Kim, Ji Hye Lee, Ga Eun Park, Sun Young Cho, Cheol-In Kang, Nam Yong Lee and Doo Ryeon Chung

    Citation: Pneumonia 2019 11:2

    Content type: Brief report

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  18. Utilization of diagnostics and biomarkers are the second largest cost drivers in the management of patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The present study aimed to systematically asses...

    Authors: Stefan M. T. Vestjens, Esther Wittermans, Simone M. C. Spoorenberg, Jan C. Grutters, Charlotte A. van Ruitenbeek, G. Paul Voorn, Willem Jan W. Bos and Ewoudt M. W. van de Garde

    Citation: Pneumonia 2018 10:15

    Content type: Brief report

    Published on:

  19. Potentially pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus are commonly carried in the nasopharynx of young children. Host and environmental...

    Authors: Eddy Fadlyana, Eileen M. Dunne, Kusnandi Rusmil, Rodman Tarigan, Sunaryati Sudigdoadi, Chrysanti Murad, Emma Watts, Cattram Nguyen, Catherine Satzke, Nurhandini Eka Dewi, Sang Ayu Kompiyang Indriyani, Finny Fitry Yani, Kim Mulholland and Cissy Kartasasmita

    Citation: Pneumonia 2018 10:14

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  20. Indigenous children in Australia’s Northern Territory are densely colonised with the pneumococcus within weeks of birth antecedent to a high prevalence of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI). We assessed ...

    Authors: Michael J. Binks, Sarah A. Moberley, Anne Balloch, Amanda J. Leach, Sandra Nelson, Kim M. Hare, Cate Wilson, Jane Nelson, Peter S. Morris, Robert S. Ware, Mimi L. K. Tang, Paul J. Torzillo, Jonathan R. Carapetis, Kim Mulholland and Ross M. Andrews

    Citation: Pneumonia 2018 10:13

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  21. We report a case of endogenous lipoid pneumonia secondary to long-term use of amiodarone (> 30 years) for atrial fibrillation in a 76-year-old Caucasian woman, presenting with cough and dyspnea. Endogenous Lipoid...

    Authors: Ilektra Voulgareli, Alexandra Chronaiou, Dionisios Tsoukalas and George Tsoukalas

    Citation: Pneumonia 2018 10:12

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Streptococcus pneumoniae is capable of causing multiple infectious syndromes and occasionally causes outbreaks. The objective of this review is to update prior outbreak reviews, identify control measures, and com...

    Authors: Paul N. Zivich, John D. Grabenstein, Sylvia I. Becker-Dreps and David J. Weber

    Citation: Pneumonia 2018 10:11

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  23. Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) is one of the most common pathogens of Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP), but recent reports suggest that its incidence may be declining in relation to the use of the conjugate 13-v...

    Authors: Carlos M. Luna, Laura Pulido, Michael S. Niederman, Alberto Casey, Diego Burgos, Sebastián D. Leiva Agüero, Alejandra Grosso, Evangelina Membriani, Andrea C. Entrocassi, Marcelo Rodríquez Fermepin, Carlos A. Vay, Susana Garcia and Angela Famiglietti

    Citation: Pneumonia 2018 10:9

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  24. Culture-independent sequencing methods are increasingly used to investigate the microbiota associated with human mucosal surfaces, including sites that have low bacterial load in healthy individuals (e.g. the ...

    Authors: Robyn L. Marsh, Maria T. Nelson, Chris E. Pope, Amanda J. Leach, Lucas R. Hoffman, Anne B. Chang and Heidi C. Smith-Vaughan

    Citation: Pneumonia 2018 10:7

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  25. The advent of antiretroviral therapy has led to the improved survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children to adulthood and to HIV becoming a chronic disease in older children and adolescent...

    Authors: Leah N. Githinji, Diane M. Gray and Heather J. Zar

    Citation: Pneumonia 2018 10:6

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  26. The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infection rises considerably in later life. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody levels to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide are known to...

    Authors: Esther L. German, Bahij Al-Hakim, Elena Mitsi, Shaun H. Pennington, Jenna F. Gritzfeld, Angie D. Hyder-Wright, Antonia Banyard, Stephen B. Gordon, Andrea M. Collins and Daniela M. Ferreira

    Citation: Pneumonia 2018 10:5

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that remains an important public health problem at the global level. It is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality, due to the emergence of antibiotic resis...

    Authors: Rkia Eddabra and Hassan Ait Benhassou

    Citation: Pneumonia 2018 10:4

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  28. Pneumonia is a very common disease, especially among the elderly. Various drugs’ preventive effects against pneumonia have been reported. The antiplatelet drug cilostazol is used to prevent pneumonia, but the ...

    Authors: Hirotaka Nakashima, Kazuhisa Watanabe, Hiroyuki Umegaki, Yusuke Suzuki and Masafumi Kuzuya

    Citation: Pneumonia 2018 10:3

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  29. The majority of patients with community acquired-pneumonia (CAP) are treated in primary care and the mortality in this group is very low. However, a small but significant proportion of patients who begin treat...

    Authors: Biswajit Chakrabarti, Dan Wootton, Steven Lane, Elizabeth Kanwar, Joseph Somers, Jacyln Proctor, Nancy Prospero and Mark Woodhead

    Citation: Pneumonia 2018 10:2

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. Children in third-world settings including Papua New Guinea (PNG) experience early onset of carriage with a broad range of pneumococcal serotypes, resulting in a high incidence of severe pneumococcal disease a...

    Authors: Deborah Lehmann, Wendy Kirarock, Anita H. J. van den Biggelaar, Megan Passey, Peter Jacoby, Gerard Saleu, Geraldine Masiria, Birunu Nivio, Andrew Greenhill, Tilda Orami, Jacinta Francis, Rebecca Ford, Lea-Ann Kirkham, Vela Solomon, Peter C. Richmond and William S. Pomat

    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:20

    Content type: Research

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  31. Ever since Chuck Berry coined the term “rocking pneumonia” in his 1956 song “Roll over Beethoven”, pneumonia has been mentioned frequently in modern blues and rock songs. We analyzed the lyrics of these songs ...

    Authors: Ger T. Rijkers and Maria Rodriguez Gomez

    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:18

    Content type: Commentary

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  32. Patients with recurrent respiratory tract infections and an impaired response to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination are diagnosed with a specific antibody deficiency. In adult patients with pneumococcal p...

    Authors: Diana van Kessel, Thijs Hoffman, Heleen van Velzen-Blad, Bob Meek, Suzan van Mens, Jan Grutters and Ger Rijkers

    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:16

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  33. Pneumococcal disease has a high burden in adults in the United Kingdom (UK); however, the total burden is underestimated, principally because most cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are non-invasive. ...

    Authors: James Chalmers, James Campling, Gillian Ellsbury, Peter M. Hawkey, Harish Madhava and Mary Slack

    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:15

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

  34. The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced to prevent invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal people in 2001. PCV13 replaced PCV7 in July 2011, covering...

    Authors: Deirdre A. Collins, Anke Hoskins, Thomas Snelling, Kalpani Senasinghe, Jacinta Bowman, Natalie A. Stemberger, Amanda J. Leach and Deborah Lehmann

    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:14

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. This study was designed to test the therapeutic potential of a MEK1/2 inhibitor (MEKi) in an experimental model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. The study found that treatment with MEKi reduced alveolar neutr...

    Authors: Matthew E. Long, Ke-Qin Gong, William E. Eddy, W. Conrad Liles and Anne M. Manicone

    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:13

    Content type: Brief report

    Published on:

  36. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are more susceptible to respiratory tract infections by other infectious agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi) as their disease progresses to ...

    Authors: Breanne M. Head, Adriana Trajtman, Zulma V. Rueda, Lázaro Vélez and Yoav Keynan

    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:12

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  37. In children, necrotizing pneumonia (NP) is an uncommon, severe complication of pneumonia. It is characterized by destruction of the underlying lung parenchyma resulting in multiple small, thin-walled cavities ...

    Authors: I. Brent Masters, Alan F. Isles and Keith Grimwood

    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:11

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  38. Precise serotyping of pneumococci is essential for vaccine development, to better understand the pathogenicity and trends of drug resistance. Currently used conventional and molecular methods of serotyping are...

    Authors: Geetha Nagaraj, Feroze Ganaie, Vandana Govindan and Kadahalli Lingegowda Ravikumar

    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:8

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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