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Table 1 Baseline characteristics for adult patients

From: Impact of viral multiplex real-time PCR on management of respiratory tract infection: a retrospective cohort study

  Missing Total Viral a Any virus b Other c p-value d
values (n = 182) (n = 40) (n = 46) (n = 142) Viral vs. any virus Viral vs. other
Demographics
 Age, mean years ± SD (range)   55.9 ± 16.1 (18–88) 53.6 ± 16.1 (18–83) 53.9 ± 15.9 (18–83) 56.6 ± 16.1 (18–88) 0.93 0.30
 Female sex, n (%)   76 (41.8) 14 (35.0) 19 (41.3) 62 (43.7) 0.55 0.33
 Outpatients, n (%)   20 (11.0) 5 (12.5) 5 (10.9) 15 (10.6) 1.00 0.92
Comorbidities, n (%)   
 Asthma   13 (7.1) 2 (5.0) 4 (8.7) 11 (7.7) 0.81 0.85
 COPD   27 (10.6) 5 (12.5) 7 (15.2) 22 (15.5) 0.72 0.64
 Other chronic lung diseasee   26 (14.3) 2 (5.0) 2 (4.3) 24 (16.9) 1.00 0.06
 Solid cancerf   25 (13.7) 3 (7.5) 3 (6.5) 22 (15.5) 1.00 0.20
 Hematologic malignancy   38 (20.9) 13 (32.5) 15 (32.6) 25 (17.6) 0.99 0.04
 Organ transplantation   13 (7.1) 3 (7.5) 3 (6.5) 10 (7.0) 1.00 1.00
 Neutropenia   20 (11.0) 9 (22.5) 9 (19.6) 11 (7.7) 0.74 0.03
 HIV infection   6 (3.3) 1 (2.5) 2 (4.3) 5 (3.5) 1.00 1.00
 Diabetes mellitus   27 (14.8) 6 (15.0) 7 (15.2) 21 (14.8) 0.98 0.97
 Collagen vascular disease/Vasculitis   33 (18.1) 4 (10.0) 5 (10.9) 29 (20.4) 1.00 0.13
 Systemic steroids   49 (26.9) 11 (27.5) 14 (30.4) 38 (26.8) 0.77 0.93
 Other Immunosuppressiong   21 (11.5) 5 (12.5) 6 (13.0) 16 (11.3) 0.94 1.00
 Chronic renal failure   45 (24.7) 11 (27.5) 13 (28.3) 34 (23.9) 0.94 0.65
Clinical findings
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg, mean ± SD (range) 9 125 ± 24 (63–207) 129 ± 27 (63–207) 128 ± 28 (63–207) 123 ± 22 (67–197) 0.87 0.17
 Heart rate, beats/min, mean ± SD (range) 8 94 ± 20 (51–155) 91 ± 19 (51–150) 94 ± 19 (51–150) 94 ± 20 (56–155) 0.47 0.40
 Respiratory rate, breaths/min, mean ± SD (range) 130 26 ± 9 (10–60) 23 ± 8 (12–36) 27 ± 13 (12–60) 27 ± 10 (10–60) 0.39 0.23
 Body temperature, °C, mean ± SD (range) 20 37.6 ± 1.0 (35.4–42.0) 37.5 ± 0.9 (35.6–39.6) 37.5 ± 0.9 (35.6–39.6) 37.6 ± 1.0 (35.4–42.0) 1.00 0.59
Laboratory findingsh, mean ± SD (range)
 C-reactive protein (maximum), mg/l 13 151 ± 127 (1–500) 159 ± 148 (1–500) 166 ± 152 (1–500) 148 ± 121 (1–499) 0.83 0.64
 White blood cells (maximum), G/l 11 11.5 ± 10.2 (0.0–97.0) 12.2 ± 16.8 (1.8–97.0) 12.6 ± 16.3 (1.8–97.0) 11.3 ± 7.3 (0.0–41.1) 0.91 0.75
 Platelets (minimum), G/l 11 202 ± 128 (4–713) 159 ± 117 (5–513) 165 ± 117 (5–513) 215 ± 129 (4–713) 0.82 0.02
Discharge diagnosis, n (%)
 Bronchitis   22 (12.1) 7 (17.5) 7 (15.2) 15 (10.6) 0.78 0.36
 Acute exacerbation of COPD   5 (2.7) 1 (2.5) 1 (2.2) 4 (2.8) 1.00 1.00
 Upper respiratory tract infection   8 (4.4) 4 (10.0) 4 (8.7) 4 (2.8) 1.00 0.14
 Respiratory tract infection, unspecified   7 (3.8) 2 (5.0) 4 (8.7) 5 (3.5) 0.81 0.96
 Community-acquired pneumonia   65 (35.7) 21 (52.5) 25 (54.3) 44 (31.0) 0.86 0.01
 Hospital-acquired pneumonia   12 (6.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 12 (8.5) n/a 0.09
 Aspiration pneumonia   1 (0.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.7) n/a 1.00
 Tuberculosis   3 (1.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 3 (2.1) n/a 0.95
 Otheri   59 (32.4) 5 (12.5) 5 (10.9) 54 (38.0) 1.00 0.002
  1. °C, degree Celsius, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, n number, SD standard deviation
  2. aCases in which only one or more respiratory viruses were detected
  3. bCases in which one or more respiratory viruses were detected (as single or mixed infection)
  4. cIncludes bacterial etiology, mixed etiology, no pathogen
  5. dFor continuous variables, 2-sample independent t-test was used. For categorical variables, Mantel-Haenszel chi square or Fisher exact test were used
  6. eOther chronic lung diseases, e.g. cystic fibrosis, pulmonary sarcoidosis, pulmonary hypertension
  7. fAll solid tumors including bronchial carcinoma
  8. gPatients with one of the following conditions: primary or secondary antibody deficiency, congenital immunodeficiency, immunosuppressive therapy other than steroids, severe malnutrition with cachexia
  9. hHighest/lowest value within a time period of 3 days before and 3 days after date of rtPCR
  10. iOther infections (n = 10); neoplastic diseases (n =6); collagen vascular; other rheumatologic or autoimmune (n = 14); sarcoidosis (n = 3); non-infectious non-neoplastic pulmonary diseases (n = 23); cardiovascular diseases (n = 3)