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Table 3 Baseline characteristics for all patients

From: Impact of viral multiplex real-time PCR on management of respiratory tract infection: a retrospective cohort study

  Missing Total Viral a Any virus b Other c p-value d
values (n = 254) (n = 80) (n = 91) (n = 174) Viral vs. any virus Viral vs. other
Demographics
 Age, mean years ± SD (range)   41.5 ± 26.9 (0–88) 29.0 ± 27.5 (0–83) 29.6 ± 27.4 (0–83) 47.2 ± 24.7 (0–88) 0.89 <0.001
 Female sex, n (%)   107 (42.1) 28 (35.0) 37 (40.7) 79 (45.4) 0.45 0.12
 Children, n (%)   72 (28.3) 40 (50.0) 45 (49.5) 32 (18.4) 0.94 <0.001
 Outpatients, n (%)   23 (9.1) 7 (8.8) 7 (7.7) 16 (9.2) 0.80 0.91
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Asthma   14 (5.5) 3 (3.8) 5 (5.5) 11 (6.3) 0.87 0.61
 COPD   27 (10.6) 5 (6.3) 7 (7.7) 22 (12.6) 0.71 0.13
 Other chronic lung diseasee   39 (15.4) 9 (11.3) 10 (11.0) 30 (17.2) 0.96 0.22
 Solid cancerf   26 (10.2) 3 (3.8) 3 (3.3) 23 (13.2) 1.00 0.02
 Haematologic malignancy   48 (18.9) 21 (26.3) 24 (26.4) 27 (15.5) 0.99 0.04
 Organ transplantation   14 (5.5) 4 (5.0) 4 (4.4) 10 (5.7) 1.00 1.00
 Neutropenia   29 (11.4) 17 (21.3) 17 (18.7) 12 (6.9) 0.68 <0.001
 HIV infection   6 (2.4) 1 (1.3) 2 (2.2) 5 (2.9) 1.00 0.77
 Diabetes mellitus   27 (10.6) 6 (7.5) 7 (7.7) 21 (12.1) 0.96 0.28
 Collagen vascular disease/Vasculitis   33 (13.0) 4 (5.0) 5 (5.5) 29 (16.7) 1.00 0.01
 Systemic steroids   57 (22.4) 16 (20.0) 20 (22.0) 41 (23.6) 0.75 0.53
 Other Immunosuppressiong   24 (9.4) 8 (10.0) 9 (9.9) 16 (9.2) 0.98 0.84
 Chronic renal failure   45 (17.7) 11 (13.8) 13 (14.3) 34 (19.5) 0.92 0.26
Clinical findings
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg, mean ± SD (range) 38 120 ± 25 (59–207) 121 ± 26 (63–207) 119 ± 26 (63–207) 119 ± 24 (59–197) 0.67 0.60
 Heart rate, beats/min, mean ± SD (range) 11 106 ± 31 (51–234) 114 ± 35 (51–186) 114 ± 33 (51–186) 102 ± 28 (56–234) 1.00 0.01
 Respiratory rate, breaths/min, mean ± SD (range) 145 34 ± 18 (10–103) 37 ± 21 (12–103) 37 ± 20 (12–103) 32 ± 15 (10–88) 1.00 0.17
 Body temperature, °C, mean ± SD (range) 23 37.6 ± 1.0 (35.0–42.0) 37.5 ± 1.0 (35.0–39.6) 37.5 ± 1.0 (35.0–39.6) 37.6 ± 1.0 (35.1–42.0) 1.00 0.48
Laboratory findingsh, mean ± SD (range)
 C-reactive protein (maximum), mg/l 15 132 ± 134 (1–999) 111 ± 127 (1–500) 117 ± 132 (1–500) 141 ± 137 (1–999) 0.77 0.11
 White blood cells (maximum), G/l 13 12.8 ± 11.0 (0.0–97.0) 12.4 ± 13.8 (0.2–97.0) 13.1 ± 14.0 (0.2–97.0) 13.1 ± 9.4 (0.0–63.1) 0.75 0.69
 Platelets (minimum), G/l 13 215 ± 134 (4–713) 208 ± 156 (5–674) 204 ± 149 (5–674) 218 ± 123 (4–713) 0.87 0.62
Discharge diagnosis, n (%)
 Bronchitis   32 (12.6) 16 (20.0) 16 (17.6) 16 (9.2) 0.69 0.02
 Acute exacerbation of COPD   5 (2.0) 1 (1.3) 1 (1.1) 4 (2.3) 1.00 0.99
 Upper respiratory tract infection   22 (8.7) 13 (16.3) 14 (15.4) 9 (5.2) 0.88 0.004
 Respiratory tract infection, unspecified   11 (4.3) 6 (7.5) 8 (8.8) 5 (2.9) 0.76 0.18
 Community-acquired pneumonia   80 (31.5) 27 (33.8) 33 (36.3) 53 (30.5) 0.73 0.60
 Hospital-acquired pneumonia   22 (8.7) 5 (6.3) 6 (6.6) 17 (9.8) 0.93 0.36
 Aspiration pneumonia   3 (1.2) 1 (1.3) 2 (2.2) 2 (1.1) 1.00 1.00
 Tuberculosis   3 (1.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 3 (1.7) n/a 0.64
 Otheri   76 (29.9) 11 (13.8) 11 (12.1) 65 (37.4) 0.75 <0.001
  1. °C, degree Celsius, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, n number, SD standard deviation
  2. aCases in which only one or more respiratory viruses were detected
  3. bCases in which one or more respiratory viruses were detected (as single or mixed infection)
  4. cIncludes bacterial etiology, mixed etiology, no pathogen
  5. dFor continuous variables, 2-sample independent t-test was used. For categorical variables, Mantel-Haenszel chi square or Fisher exact test were used
  6. eOther chronic lung diseases, e.g. cystic fibrosis, pulmonary sarcoidosis, pulmonary hypertension
  7. fAll solid tumors including bronchial carcinoma
  8. gPatients with one of the following conditions: primary or secondary antibody deficiency, congenital immunodeficiency, immunosuppressive therapy other than steroids, severe malnutrition with cachexia
  9. hHighest/lowest value within a time period of 3 days before and 3 days after date of rtPCR
  10. iOther infections (n = 24); neoplastic diseases (n = 7); collagen vascular; other rheumatologic or autoimmune (n = 15); sarcoidosis (n = 3); non-infectious non-neoplastic pulmonary diseases (n = 23); cardiovascular diseases (n = 3); gastroesophageal diseases (n = 1)