Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary of published studies of paediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in which non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) was identified as a significant pathogen

From: A review of the role of Haemophilus influenzae in community-acquired pneumonia

Authors Country Study details Number of cases Age of children Year of study Assay Diagnostic criteria Number of positive cultures (%) H. influenzae isolated (%) NTHi: proportion of total H. influenzae isolates (%) Virology Hib vaccine introduced
Silverman et al [62] Nigeria Children with severe, untreated, acute pneumonia 88 4 months to 8 years 1977 Lung aspirate Growth 70/88 (80%) 10/88 (11%) All CIE negative ie not Hib no no
       Blood culture Growth 4/36 (11%) 0/36 (0%)    
       Sera CIE for pneumococci and Hib 9/45 (20%) 0/45 (0%)    
Shann et al [100] Papua New Guinea Children hospitalised with pneumonia 83 <5 years 1978–1988 Blood culture Growth 51/83 (61%) 19/83 (23%)a 4/19 (21%) yes no
       Lung aspirate Growth   33/83 (40%)a 18/32 (56%)   
Wall et al [102] The Gambia Children and adults with pneumonia 64 51 aged
<16 years
1982–1984 Blood culture Growth 14/51 children (28%); 2/13 adults (15%) 11/49 (23%) children <5 years; 2/15 0/9 (0%) no no
       Lung aspirate Growth 29/51 children (57%); 7/13 adults (54%) (13%) older patientsb 4/13 (31%)   
       Sera CIE for Hib 2/64 (3%) 0/6 (0%) 0/2 (0%)   
Ghafoor et alc[103] Pakistan Children hospitalised with pneumonia 1,331 <5 years 1986–1988 Blood culture Growth 276/1,331 (21%) 144/1,331 (11%) 34/105 (32%) yes no
Yin et al [106] Singapore Children with pneumonia 1,158 <15 years (median age 1.37 years) 1988, 1995, 1999 Blood culture Growth 671/1,158 (58%) 0/8 (0%)   yes no
       Pleural fluid Growth   0/15 (0%)    
       Sputum Growth   101/1,158 (9%) 101/101 (100%)d   
Rahman et al [12] Bangladesh Children hospitalised with pneumonia 1,493 <5 years 1999–2003 Blood culture Growth 25/1,493 (1.7%) 25/1,493 (1.7%) 6/25 (24%)e no no
De Schutter et al [61] Belgium Children with acute nonresponsive or recurrent CAP 250 1 month to 15 years (median age 33 months) 2005–2007 BAL Growth with quantitative culture (≥104 cfu/ml) and PCR 190/250 (76%) 33/127 (26%) in NR13AP; 63/123 (51%) in Rec-CAP 94/96 (98%)f yes yes
Howie et al [105] The Gambia Children with severe pneumonia 55 2 months to <5 years 2007–2008 Lung aspirates (n=47) and pleural aspirates Growth 21/56 (38%)g 3/56 (5%)g 3/3 (100%) yes yes
        PCR 28/53 (53%) 12/53 (23%) 3/4 (75%)h   
  1. BAL, broncho-alveolar lavage; CIE, counter-current Immunoelectrophoresis; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; NR-CAP, non-responding CAP; Rec-CAP, recurrent CAP; Spn, Streptococcus pneumoniae; cfu, colony forming units; Hia, Haemophilus infuenzae type a; Hib, Haemophilus infuenzae type b; Hic, Haemophilus infuenzae type c; Hid, Haemophilus infuenzae type d; Hie, Haemophilus infuenzae type e; Hif, Haemophilus infuenzae type f; n, number
  2. a32/42 (76%) H. influenzae isolates serotyped. Other serotypes included 1 Hia, 6 Hib, 3 Hic, 2 Hid, 1 Hie and 1 Hif. H. influenzae frequently co-cultured with Spn. Spn isolated from 28/83 (34%) children
  3. bH. influenzae isolate serotypes included 2 Hia (from lung) and 7 Hib (Of these, 3 from lung)
  4. cSee also Weinberg et al [104] for more details of this study
  5. dNTHi only recovered from sputum samples which were from older children and only assessed if there were <25 epithelial cells/high power field
  6. eOther serotypes included 15 Hib, 3 Hic and 1 Hid
  7. f2 isolates lost for typing
  8. g56 specimens were cultured. NTHi and Spn co-cultured in 21% (11/53) of cases
  9. h1/4 (25%) isolates was Hib