Open Access

Vaccination for the control of childhood bacterial pneumonia — Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal vaccines

  • Diana C. Otczyk12 and
  • Allan W. Cripps12

Received: 17 September 2012

Accepted: 14 February 2013

Published: 2 July 2016


Pneumonia in childhood is endemic in large parts of the world and in particular, in developing countries, as well as in many indigenous communities within developed nations. Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae conjugate vaccines are currently available against the leading bacterial causes of pneumonia. The use of the vaccines in both industrialised and developing countries have shown a dramatic reduction in the burden of pneumonia and invasive disease in children. However, the greatest threat facing pneumococcal conjugate vaccine effectiveness is serotype replacement. The current vaccines provide serotype-specific, antibody-mediated protection against only a few of the 90+ capsule serotypes. Therefore, there has been a focus in recent years to rapidly advance technologies that will result in broader disease coverage and more affordable vaccines that can be used in developing countries. The next generation of pneumococcal vaccines have advanced to clinical trials.


pneumoniabacteriaHaemophilus influenzae type b Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccineWHO