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  1. Thymosin drugs are commonly used for the treatment of viral infections due to their immunomodulatory effects. The comprehensive clinical efficacy of Thymalfasin therapy for COVID-19 associated pneumonia is not...

    Authors: Zirui Wang, Cong Wang, Xiaohua Fei, Haixing Wu, Peiqin Niu and Changxing Shen
    Citation: Pneumonia 2023 15:14
  2. Although the association between living in the vicinity of a goat farm and the occurrence of pneumonia is well-documented, it is unclear whether the higher risk of pneumonia in livestock dense areas is season-...

    Authors: C. Joris Yzermans, Youri P. Moleman, Peter Spreeuwenberg, Mark M.J. Nielen, Michel L.A. Dückers, Lidwien A.M. Smit and Christos Baliatsas
    Citation: Pneumonia 2023 15:13
  3. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) provide protection against vaccine-type pneumococcal disease in both children and adults. Growing evidence suggests that PCVs also reduce pneumonia and lower respiratory ...

    Authors: Eileen M. Dunne, Marta C. Nunes, Mary P. E. Slack, Christian Theilacker and Bradford D. Gessner
    Citation: Pneumonia 2023 15:10
  4. Pneumonia is the most serious form of acute respiratory infection and Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of pediatric bacterial pneumonia. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines were introduced in the United St...

    Authors: Tianyan Hu, Eric M. Sarpong, Yan Song, Nicolae Done, Qing Liu, Esteban Lemus-Wirtz, James Signorovitch, Salini Mohanty and Thomas Weiss
    Citation: Pneumonia 2023 15:8
  5. Since the introduction of higher valency pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in 2009, recent estimates on the economic burden of pediatric pneumococcal disease (PD) in Germany have been lacking. This study estimat...

    Authors: Tianyan Hu, Bélène Podmore, Rosemarie Barnett, Dominik Beier, Wolfgang Galetzka, Nawab Qizilbash, Dennis Heckl, Timo Boellinger and Jessica Weaver
    Citation: Pneumonia 2023 15:7
  6. The lungs are an immunologically unique environment; they are exposed to innumerable pathogens and particulate matter daily. Appropriate clearance of pathogens and response to pollutants is required to prevent...

    Authors: Filiz T. Korkmaz and Katrina E. Traber
    Citation: Pneumonia 2023 15:4
  7. With the high frequency of acute respiratory infections in children worldwide, particularly so in low-resource countries, the development of effective diagnostic support is crucial. While pulse oximetry has be...

    Authors: Maheen Sheikh, Huzaifa Ahmad, Romesa Ibrahim, Imran Nisar and Fyezah Jehan
    Citation: Pneumonia 2023 15:3
  8. Pneumococcal disease is a leading cause of communicable disease morbidity and mortality globally. We aimed to estimate invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) and all-cause pneumonia (...

    Authors: Salini Mohanty, Bélène Podmore, Ana Cuñado Moral, Ian Matthews, Eric Sarpong, Alessandra Lacetera and Nawab Qizilbash
    Citation: Pneumonia 2023 15:2
  9. There is a knowledge gap of specific characteristics linked to disease severity of the different COVID-19 waves, especially in underserved populations. We compared the demographic and clinical factors associat...

    Authors: Hye Won Shin, Alecia James, Theresa Feng, Lillian Chow and Robert Foronjy
    Citation: Pneumonia 2022 14:8
  10. A mixed pulmonary infection of Mycobacterium bacteremicum and three different isolates of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is an unusual clinical manifestation and have not yet been indicated. In this case repor...

    Authors: Morteza Masoumi, Fatemeh Sakhaee, Mohammad Reza Zolfaghari, Samira Tarashi, Fatemeh Rahimi Jamnani, Farzam Vaziri, Seyed Davar Siadat and Abolfazl Fateh
    Citation: Pneumonia 2022 14:7
  11. Surveillance for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) likely captures just a fraction of the burden of disease. Understanding the burden of hospitalizations and disparities between populations can help to inform ...

    Authors: Zhe Zheng, Joshua L. Warren, Eugene D. Shapiro, Virginia E. Pitzer and Daniel M. Weinberger
    Citation: Pneumonia 2022 14:6
  12. Pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five. Antibiotic treatment must be started immediately in children with pneumonia. The irrational use of antibiotics may increase morbidi...

    Authors: Christine Joy Abeja, Vallence Niyonzima, John Paul Byagamy and Celestino Obua
    Citation: Pneumonia 2022 14:3
  13. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the most common cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although previous studies have suggested that macrolide therapy is beneficial for ARDS, its benefit fo...

    Authors: Jun Suzuki, Yusuke Sasabuchi, Shuji Hatakeyama, Hiroki Matsui, Teppei Sasahara, Yuji Morisawa, Toshiyuki Yamada, Kiyohide Fushimi and Hideo Yasunaga
    Citation: Pneumonia 2022 14:1
  14. In the Netherlands, an increased risk of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been reported for adults living near goat and poultry farms. Previous results of respiratory microbiome studies in hospitalized C...

    Authors: Inge Roof, Arianne B. van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Tizza P. Zomer, Yolande M. Vermeeren, Peter C. Wever and Wim van der Hoek
    Citation: Pneumonia 2021 13:13
  15. Drug-induced pneumonia (d-pneumonia) and bacterial pneumonia (b-pneumonia) are often difficult to differentiate; therefore, this study examined the possibility of differentiating them using serum biomarkers.

    Authors: Yuko Waseda, Masahide Yasui, Kousuke Kurokawa, Ryo Chikazawa, Toshihiro Takeda, Miho Mitsui, Tomoaki Sonoda, Makiko Yamaguchi, Satoshi Watanabe, Hazuki Takato, Yukari Ichikawa, Yukihiro Umeda, Masaki Anzai, Hiroshi Ueda, Kazuo Kasahara and Tamotsu Ishizuka
    Citation: Pneumonia 2021 13:11
  16. Pneumococcal pneumonia is the leading cause of under-five mortality globally. The surveillance of pneumococcal serotypes is therefore vital for informing pneumococcal vaccination policy and programmes. Pneumoc...

    Authors: Alex J. J. Lister, Cheng Foh Le, Eddy Seong Guan Cheah, Mohd Nasir Mohd Desa, David W. Cleary and Stuart C. Clarke
    Citation: Pneumonia 2021 13:9
  17. Bacteria and respiratory viruses co-occur in the nasopharynx, and their interactions may impact pathogenesis of invasive disease. Associations of viruses and bacteria in the nasopharynx may be affected by HIV.

    Authors: Tila Khan, Ranjan Saurav Das, Amrita Chaudhary, Jyotirmoy Chatterjee and Sangeeta Das Bhattacharya
    Citation: Pneumonia 2021 13:8
  18. Prophylactic administration of antipyretics at the time of immunization seems to decrease some side effects, however reduced immune responses have been reported in some studies. This systematic review aimed to...

    Authors: Eleni Koufoglou, Georgia Kourlaba and Athanasios Michos
    Citation: Pneumonia 2021 13:7
  19. Pneumonia is a leading cause of death in Malaysia. Whilst many studies have reported the aetiology of pneumonia in Western countries, the epidemiology of pneumonia in Malaysia remains poorly understood. As car...

    Authors: Denise E. Morris, Hannah McNeil, Rebecca E. Hocknell, Rebecca Anderson, Andrew C. Tuck, Serena Tricarico, Mohd Nor Norazmi, Victor Lim, Tan Cheng Siang, Patricia Kim Chooi Lim, Chong Chun Wie, David W. Cleary, Ivan Kok Seng Yap and Stuart C. Clarke
    Citation: Pneumonia 2021 13:6
  20. Due to high risk of mortality, children with comorbidities are typically excluded from trials evaluating pneumonia treatment. Understanding heterogeneity of outcomes among children with pneumonia and comorbidi...

    Authors: Amy Sarah Ginsburg, Tisungane Mvalo, Jun Hwang, Melda Phiri, Eric D. McCollum, Madalitso Maliwichi, Robert Schmicker, Ajib Phiri, Norman Lufesi and Susanne May
    Citation: Pneumonia 2021 13:3
  21. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is commonly associated with oro-facial and genital manifestations. It rarely causes encephalitis and even less commonly, in heavily immunosuppressed patients, visceral disease or bro...

    Authors: Johannes Sumer, Frederike Waldeck, Nadja Fischer, Christina Appenzeller, Markus Koster, Martin Früh and Werner C. Albrich
    Citation: Pneumonia 2021 13:1
  22. Due to similarities in initial disease presentation, clinicians may be inclined to repeatedly test community-acquired pneumonia cases for COVID-19 before recognizing the need to test for Legionnaires’ disease....

    Authors: Kelsie Cassell, J Lucian Davis and Ruth Berkelman
    Citation: Pneumonia 2021 13:2
  23. While persons who receive immigrant and refugee visas are screened for active tuberculosis before admission into the United States, nonimmigrant visa applicants (NIVs) are not routinely screened and may enter ...

    Authors: Bisma Ali Sayed, Drew L. Posey, Brian Maskery, La’Marcus T. Wingate and Martin S. Cetron
    Citation: Pneumonia 2020 12:15
  24. Pneumonia is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in under-five children. Regardless of this fact, efforts to identify determinants of pneumonia have been limited in the study area. The aim of this stu...

    Authors: Getaw Walle Bazie, Nebat Seid and Bitiya Admassu
    Citation: Pneumonia 2020 12:14
  25. Maternal immunization with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) may protect young infants in high-risk settings against the high risk of pneumococcal infections in early life. The aim of this study was to dete...

    Authors: Sarah Javati, Geraldine Masiria, Arthur Elizah, John-Paul Matlam, Rebecca Ford, Peter C. Richmond, Deborah Lehmann, William S. Pomat and Anita H. J. van den Biggelaar
    Citation: Pneumonia 2020 12:13
  26. Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading infectious cause of human mortality and is responsible for nearly 2 million deaths every year. It is often regarded as a ‘silent killer’ because it predominantly affects the po...

    Authors: Gabriella Scandurra, Chris Degeling, Paul Douglas, Claudia C. Dobler and Ben Marais
    Citation: Pneumonia 2020 12:9
  27. Childhood pneumonia continues to be a disease that causes severe morbidity and mortality among children mainly in South-East Asia and Africa though it is not so in the developed world. Pneumonia accounts for 1...

    Authors: Sanath Thushara Kudagammana, Ruchira Ruwanthika Karunaratne, Thilini Surenika Munasinghe and Haputhanthirige Donna Wasana Samankumari Kudagammana
    Citation: Pneumonia 2020 12:8
  28. Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults is still a common and serious illness in the sub-Saharan Africa. Identification of the pathogens is crucial in the management of CAP. This study was done to determi...

    Authors: Peter Kishimbo, Nyambura Moremi Sogone, Fredrick Kalokola and Stephen E. Mshana
    Citation: Pneumonia 2020 12:7
  29. Cohort studies identifying the incidence, complications and co-morbidities associated with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) are largely based on administrative datasets and rely on International Classificati...

    Authors: Maria C. Rodriguez-Barradas, Kathleen A. McGinnis, Kathleen Akgün, Janet P. Tate, Sheldon T. Brown, Adeel A. Butt, Michael Fine, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Christopher J. Graber, Laurence Huang, David Rimland, Amy Justice and Kristina Crothers
    Citation: Pneumonia 2020 12:6
  30. Influenza viruses specifically, A and B mainly contribute to seasonal outbreaks that occur globally. However, due to limited diagnostics for influenza there is little data regarding clinical outcomes of patien...

    Authors: Mujahid Hussain, Nosheen Nasir, Muhammad Irfan and Zahra Hasan
    Citation: Pneumonia 2020 12:5
  31. Childhood pneumonia continues to be a major infectious killer in India. WHO recommended respiratory rate and oxygen saturation (SpO2) measurements are not well implemented in Indian public health outpatient facil...

    Authors: Varun Alwadhi, Enisha Sarin, Praveen Kumar, Prasant Saboth, Ajay Khera, Sachin Gupta and Harish Kumar
    Citation: Pneumonia 2020 12:4

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