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  1. Since 2000, the widespread adoption of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) has had a major impact in the prevention of pneumonia. Limited access to international financial support means some middle-income c...

    Authors: Serena Tricarico, Hannah C. McNeil, David W. Cleary, Michael G. Head, Victor Lim, Ivan Kok Seng Yap, Chong Chun Wie, Cheng Siang Tan, Mohd Nor Norazmi, Ismail Aziah, Eddy Seong Guan Cheah, Saul N. Faust, Johanna M.C. Jefferies, Paul J. Roderick, Michael Moore, Ho Ming Yuen…
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:6
  2. Pneumonia and meningitis are common causes of severe childhood illness in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The etiology of both clinical conditions in PNG has not been recently assessed. Changes in lifestyle, provision...

    Authors: Christopher C. Blyth, Rebecca Ford, Joycelyn Sapura, Tonny Kumani, Geraldine Masiria, John Kave, Lapule Yuasi, Andrew Greenhill, Ilomo Hwaihwanje, Amanda Lang, Deborah Lehmann and William Pomat
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:5
  3. Air pollution has been shown to increase the susceptibility to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Previously, we observed an increased incidence of CAP in adults living within 1 km from poultry farms, potenti...

    Authors: Lidwien A. M. Smit, Gert Jan Boender, Wouter A. A. de Steenhuijsen Piters, Thomas J. Hagenaars, Elisabeth G. W. Huijskens, John W. A. Rossen, Marion Koopmans, Gonnie Nodelijk, Elisabeth A. M. Sanders, Joris Yzermans, Debby Bogaert and Dick Heederik
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:3
  4. British Thoracic Society guidelines recommend clarithromycin in addition to beta-lactam antibiotics for patients with community-acquired pneumonia and CURB-65 score 2–5. Intravenous therapy is commonly used bu...

    Authors: Nikolas Rae, Aran Singanayagam, Stuart Schembri and James D. Chalmers
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:2
  5. Pulmonary infections in the returned traveller are a common presentation. A wide variety of infections may present with pulmonary symptoms. It is important for clinicians to differentiate the cause of these sy...

    Authors: Ashleigh Trimble, V. Moffat and A. M. Collins
    Citation: Pneumonia 2017 9:1
  6. In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared tuberculosis (TB) to be responsible for more deaths than any other single infectious disease. The burden of TB among children has frequently been dismissed...

    Authors: Helen E. Jenkins
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:24
  7. Despite significant progress, pneumonia is still the leading cause of infectious deaths in children under five years of age. Poor adherence to antibiotics has been associated with treatment failure in World He...

    Authors: Rebecca Nightingale, Tim Colbourn, David Mukanga, Limangeni Mankhambo, Norman Lufesi, Eric D. McCollum and Carina King
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:21
  8. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) has the potential to interact with other vaccines containing diphtheria toxin-like antigens (such as those found in the DTP vaccine) upon sequential administration. This is...

    Authors: Mohamed Tashani, Harunor Rashid, Kim Mulholland and Robert Booy
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:16
  9. Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae is considered a precursor to pneumococcal diseases including pneumonia. As part of the Kalgoorlie Otitis Media Research Project, we characterised pneumococci isolated from the...

    Authors: Eileen M. Dunne, Kylie Carville, Thomas V. Riley, Jacinta Bowman, Amanda J. Leach, Allan W. Cripps, Denise Murphy, Peter Jacoby and Deborah Lehmann
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:15
  10. Following the publication of a volume of Pneumonia focused on diagnosis, the journal’s Editorial Board members debated the definition and classification of pneumonia and came to a consensus on the need to revise ...

    Authors: Grant Mackenzie
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:14
  11. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi)-associated ear and respiratory diseases (including pneumonia) represent a major health burden in many parts of the world. NTHi strains retrieved from the upper airways c...

    Authors: Heidi C. Smith-Vaughan, Jemima Beissbarth, Jacinta Bowman, Kim M. Hare, Erin P. Price, Janessa Pickering, Deborah Lehmann, Anne B. Chang, Peter S. Morris, Robyn L. Marsh and Amanda J. Leach
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:13
  12. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA), a conserved virulence factor essential for Streptococcus pneumoniae attachment to upper respiratory tract (URT) epithelia, is a potential vaccine candidate for preventing co...

    Authors: Jacinta P. Francis, Peter C. Richmond, Audrey Michael, Peter M. Siba, Peter Jacoby, Belinda J. Hales, Wayne R. Thomas, Deborah Lehmann, William S. Pomat and Anita H. J. van den Biggelaar
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:12
  13. Macrolide antibiotics are widely used for a range of indications, including pneumonia. Both high-level and low-level resistance to macrolides is increasing in pneumococci globally. Macrolide resistance in pneu...

    Authors: Allen C. Cheng and Adam W. J. Jenney
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:10
  14. The role and relationship between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines represents one of the least studied aspects of the pathogenesis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The aim of the present study was to...

    Authors: Stefano Aliberti, Letizia Corinna Morlacchi, Paola Faverio, Rafael Fernandez-Botran, Roberto Cosentini, Marco Mantero, Paula Peyrani, Julio Ramirez, Jose Bordon and Francesco Blasi
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:8
  15. Improved access to healthcare, vaccines and treatment with antibiotics has reduced global mortality from childhood community-acquired pneumonia. However, as respiratory viruses are responsible for most episode...

    Authors: Keith Grimwood, Siew M. Fong, Mong H. Ooi, Anna M. Nathan and Anne B. Chang
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:6
  16. The aim of this study was to review the current status and usage of guidelines in the diagnosis and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in European countries and to compare to established guideline...

    Authors: Vytautas Usonis, Rimvydas Ivaskevicius, Javier Diez-Domingo, Susanna Esposito, Oana G. Falup-Pecurariu, Adam Finn, Fernanda Rodrigues, Vana Spoulou, George A. Syrogiannopoulos and David Greenberg
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:5
  17. Neonatal pneumonia is a devastating condition. Most deaths in sub-Saharan Africa can be attributed to preventable diseases, including pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria, which together killed an estimated 2.2 mi...

    Authors: Robin J. Green and Jessica M. Kolberg
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:3
  18. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of presentation to healthcare facilities. The diagnosis of CAP is usually made in patients with suggestive symptoms, signs, and radiological features. A num...

    Authors: Andrew D. Black
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:2
  19. The biggest recent development in pneumonia diagnostics has been the increased availability and use of nucleic acid detection assays, although this change has brought with it new challenges about the interpret...

    Authors: David R. Murdoch
    Citation: Pneumonia 2016 8:1
  20. The World Health Organization recommends oxygen therapy for children with severe pneumonia, but this essential medicine is unavailable in many health centres in limited-resource settings. To address this need,...

    Authors: Bryn A. Sobott, David J. Peake, James F. P. Black and Roger P. Rassool
    Citation: Pneumonia 2015 6:6010115
  21. Each year an estimated 120 million episodes of pneumonia occur in children younger than 5 years of age, resulting in one million deaths globally. Within this age group the lungs are still developing by increas...

    Authors: Keith Grimwood and Anne B. Chang
    Citation: Pneumonia 2015 6:6010101
  22. Recent studies investigating the relationship between the microbiota and disease are demonstrating novel concepts that could significantly alter the way we treat disease and promote health in the future. It is...

    Authors: Ilan J. N. Koppen, Astrid A. T. M. Bosch, Elisabeth A. M. Sanders, Marlies A. van Houten and Debby Bogaert
    Citation: Pneumonia 2015 6:6010090
  23. The composition of the upper respiratory tract microbiome may play an important role in the development of lower respiratory tract infections. Here, we characterised the microbiome of the nasopharynx and oroph...

    Authors: Timothy L. Wiemken, Venkatakrishna Rao Jala, Robert R. Kelley, Paula Peyrani, William A. Mattingly, Forest W. Arnold, Patricio W. Cabral, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Bodduluri Haribabu and Julio A. Ramirez
    Citation: Pneumonia 2015 6:6010083
  24. Patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and an underlying diagnosis of cancer have worse outcomes. However, the characteristics of cancer patients with CAP admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) are ...

    Authors: Ricardo J. P. José, Ali O. Mohammed, James J. P. Goldring, Rachel C. Chambers, Jeremy S. Brown and Banwari Agarwal
    Citation: Pneumonia 2015 6:6010077
  25. Acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia (AFOP) is a histopathologic variant of acute lung injury that has been associated with infection and inflammatory disorders and has been reported as a complication of l...

    Authors: Keith C. Meyer, Jennifer Bierach, Jeffrey Kanne, Jose R. Torrealba and Nilto C. De Oliveira
    Citation: Pneumonia 2015 6:6010067
  26. Rapid diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae can play a significant role in decreasing morbidity and mortality of infection. The accurate diagnosis of pneumococcal disease is hampered by the difficulties in growin...

    Authors: Feroze A. Ganaie, Vandana Govindan and K. L. Ravi Kumar
    Citation: Pneumonia 2015 6:6010057
  27. Indigenous Australian children have high (up to 90%) rates of nasopharyngeal microbial colonisation and of hospitalisation for pneumonia. In Indigenous children hospitalised with pneumonia in Central Australia...

    Authors: Anne B. Chang, Heidi Smith-Vaughan, Theo P. Sloots, Patricia C. Valery, David Whiley, Jemima Beissbarth and Paul J. Torzillo
    Citation: Pneumonia 2015 6:6010048
  28. Thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) and haptoglobin (Hp) are known to be involved in pathophysiology. This study was conducted to evaluate their diagnostic significance. We employed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIS...

    Authors: Mee-Kyung Cha and Il-Han Kim
    Citation: Pneumonia 2015 6:6010018
  29. The replacement of “presumptive treatment for malaria” by “test before treat” strategies for the management of febrile illness is raising awareness of the importance of knowing more about the causes of illness...

    Authors: Florid Muro, Rita Reyburn and Hugh Reyburn
    Citation: Pneumonia 2015 6:6010006
  30. Non-typhi Salmonella enterica infection rarely presents as a pleural empyema, with only 31 cases published in the literature over the last century. We report a case of an 85-year-old female with worsening shortne...

    Authors: Shivanshan Pathmanathan, Suminda Welagedara, Petra Dorrington and Siddharth Sharma
    Citation: Pneumonia 2015 6:BF03371465

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